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#41 [url]

Jan 18 14 11:35 PM

Guate posted this chart a long while back, interesting info on dentitions. 

No. GSL CBL ML Pm4 m1
1 383 342 260 37.8 -
2 378 339 256 37.3 -
3 371 322.5 241.5 36 -
4 364 326.5 244 35.5 -
5 361.8 322.8 235 35.7 -
6 - 308 226.5 36.4 -
7 377 331.2
8 361 324 237 - -
9 339 - 224 - -
10 366 - - - -
11 372.6 327.2 - 30 26.6
12 350.6 320.8 - 34.5 25.4
13 340.1 295.6 - 33.8 25.1
14 345 308 - - -
15 335 315 - - -
16 406 - 276 - -
17 400 - 240 - -
Mean 365.6 325.3 244 35.4 26.5
Source: Mazák (1967) and several other authors.

Guate, do you remember which of these measurements was not given by Mazak (1967)?

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#42 [url]

Jan 21 14 9:51 PM

Those from Mazák (1967) are the numbers 1 to 9, but he only personally measured those from the No. 1 to 7; he also mentions the record of Baikov (No. 17) as reliable in that document. Later in his book “Der Tiger” of 1983, he mentions the record skull of Changwangshai (No. 16) as reliable to.


So, the figures from Mazák are the numbers 1-9, 16 and 17, but measured by him, only No. 1 to 7.All the others are from different sources, although none of them is unreliable.


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#44 [url]

Jan 22 14 12:04 AM

Wanderfalke wrote:
A video from a french page showing siberian tigers in the wild through camera traps. Seems like they´re from 2013. Area: North East China.

They look very large, just like those from Sikhote-Alin. I love to see wild Amur tigers. At difference than those of India, they have an aura of mystery and freedom, maybe because they are very elusive.


Amur tigers are my favorite subspecies; I practically have all documents available about them and is the most studied subspecies by me, even more than Bengals.


There is any form to download this video?


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#45 [url]

Jan 22 14 12:17 AM

Bengal tiger skulls (males)

Tigerluver, I think you will found this interesting. This list is from all the scientifically recorded Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) skulls that I have, with dentition and CBL included.


No. GSL CBL ZW ML Pm4 M1 Location Source
1 387 340 267 - - - Purnea Sterndale, 1884
2 381 - 279 - - - Nepal McDougal, 1977
3 378 333 259 - 37 27 Bengal Pocock, 1929
4 375 330 260 250 37 30 Darjeeling Pocock, 1939
5 368 - 254 - - - India Prater, 1921
6 368 - - - - - India Sterndale, 1884
7 365 322 250 240 37 28 Assam Pocock, 1939
8 363 315 257 - - 29 Nepal Pocock, 1929
9 363 325 244 - 35 27 Bhutan Pocock, 1929
10 361 315 274 - 36 26 Central Provinces Pocock, 1929
11 357 313 271 243 37 26 Central Provinces Pocock, 1939
12 356 307 241 - 36 - Nepal Pocock, 1929
13 355 311 240 232 35 26 Hyderabad Pocock, 1939
14 351 305 239 - 38 28 Nepal Pocock, 1929
15 342 307 240 227 37 27 Nepal Pocock, 1939
16 340 303 254 235 35 28 Central Provinces Pocock, 1939
17 338 305 236 230 35 27 Central Provinces Pocock, 1939
18 333 293 256 225 35 27 Central Provinces Pocock, 1939
19 333 297 251 - 35 25 Central Provinces Pocock, 1929
20 332 286 225 216 36 27 Rajputana Pocock, 1939
21 325 - 229 - 36 26 Kanara Pocock, 1929
22 317 287 223 - 34 26 Madras Pocock, 1929
23 310 257 213 - 35 - East India Feiler & Stefen, 2009
24 - - 236 - 37 29 Khatmandu Pocock, 1929
Mean 352.1 307.9 247.7 233.1 35.9 27.2


The largest specimen (No. 1 – 387 mm GSL) had a Basal length of 311 mm (described equivocally as “Palatal length” by Sterndale). The CBL of this specimen was calculated in base of its GSL and BL, using all the other Bengal tiger specimens, so is reliable and accurate.

The specimens of Pocock from 1929 and 1939 are not double posted, I review them carefully to avoid this.


Save it in your database.


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#46 [url]

Jan 31 14 1:05 AM

White tiger mystery solved: Coat color produced by single change in pigment gene - 2013

White tigers today are only seen in zoos, but they belong in nature, say researchers reporting new evidence about what makes those tigers white. Their spectacular white coats are produced by a single change in a known pigment gene, according to the study, appearing on May 23 in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication.

"The white tiger represents part of the natural genetic diversity of the tiger that is worth conserving, but is now seen only in captivity," says Shu-Jin Luo of China's Peking University.

Luo, Xiao Xu, Ruiqiang Li, and their colleagues advocate a proper captive management program to maintain a healthy Bengal tiger population including both white and orange tigers. They say it might even be worth considering the reintroduction of white tigers into their wild habitat.

The researchers mapped the genomes of a family of 16 tigers living in Chimelong Safari Park, including both white and orange individuals. They then sequenced the whole genomes of each of the three parents in the family.

Those genetic analyses led them to a pigment gene, called SLC45A2, which had already been associated with light coloration in modern Europeans and in other animals, including horses, chickens, and fish. The variant found in the white tiger primarily inhibits the synthesis of red and yellow pigments but has little to no effect on black, which explains why white tigers still show characteristic dark stripes.

Historical records of white tigers on the Indian subcontinent date back to the 1500s, Luo notes, but the last known free-ranging white tiger was shot in 1958. That many white tigers were hunted as mature adults suggests that they were fit to live in the wild. It's worth considering that tigers' chief prey species, such as deer, are likely colorblind.

Captive white tigers sometimes do show abnormalities, such as crossed eyes, but Luo says any frailties are likely the responsibility of humans, who have inbred the rare tigers in captivity. With the causal gene identified, the researchers ultimately hope to explore the evolutionary forces that have maintained tigers in both orange and white varieties.


Journal Reference:

  1. Xiao Xu, Gui-Xin Dong, Xue-Song Hu, Lin Miao, Xue-Li Zhang, De-Lu Zhang, Han-Dong Yang, Tian-You Zhang, Zheng-Ting Zou, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yan Zhuang, Jong Bhak, Yun Sung Cho, Wen-Tao Dai, Tai-Jiao Jiang, Can Xie, Ruiqiang Li, Shu-Jin Luo. The Genetic Basis of White Tigers. Current Biology, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.054
Full document available here:

Enjoy the article. This new information is very interesting and fundamental for the White tiger conservation.

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#48 [url]

Feb 1 14 12:23 AM

Oh YES, of course, I am 100% agree with you.


What Luo et al. (2013) present in the document is that White tigers are not a freak of nature, but just a normal variation of the coat pattern that was naturally presented in the wild tigers.


What they show is that the “white gene” is not responsible of the abnormalities of the “American white tigers”, in fact, the “white gene” only affect the coat pattern and nothing more.


All the present problems like crossed eyes, deformities and other stuffs are caused by the inbreeding which was the normal method to produce white tigers in America. However, Luo et al (2013) shows that there is no need to do this in order to produce white ones, in fact, two completely unrelated tigers with the “white gene” are able to produce white tigers.


The interesting thing is that the full problem was created by USA and its hunger of tigers. It was there were the bad breeding and inbreed was promoted. After all, all the white tigers came from the single specimen (Mohan) that breeds with his own daughter.


This problem seems to be inexistent in the white tigers of India, where there are at least two lineages of blood that produce white tigers.


In conclusion, the conservation is focused in tigers per se, but in America, the AZA is only breeding Amur, Sumatran and Malayan tigers, while all the white tigers are only hybrids of Amur-Bengal and highly inbreed, thus they spread the word that white tigers are useless for conservation.


It is the work and responsibility of Indian zoos to conserve the white gene, which is NOT an aberration but a natural variation, just like black jaguars in America and leopards in Africa-Asia.


Besides, it is a myth that white tigers can’t survive in the nature. The great Jim Corbett, in his book “Man eaters of Kumaon”, he presents a series of pictures (from a video that he made) showing a WILD white tigress with cubs!!! Do you think that if white tigers were not viable, they could not even breed?


The problem with white tigers is ONLY in America and all the irresponsible countries that buy its white tigers. White Indian tigers are “clean” and deserve to live. In fact, the final conclusion of Luo et al (2013) is that the “white gene” should be returned in to the wild, were it belongs, and I am 100% agree with them.


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#49 [url]

Feb 1 14 2:13 AM

Photos of South China tigers

Just to give a delight to our eyes, here are some images of the South China tigers that live in South Africa, thanks to "Save China’s Tigers".


They seem to be very well there, and with a population of 12, it seems that the project is a success. It seems that most of them meals came from hunting, although there is one picture of a tigress with a prey tied to a tree.



















These are just a few of many pictures in the Save China’s Tigers web page.


Here is some data:

The South China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), is also known as the Chinese, Amoy, or Xiamen tiger. It is one of the world's 10 most endangered animals and the most endangered of the six surviving tiger subspecies. There are few if any in the wild (between 10 to 30), and around 100 in captivity at present. The Chinese Tiger originated in China two million years ago and is commonly believed to be the ancestral root tiger from which all other subspecies of tiger (Bengal, Siberian etc) are derived.


The South China tiger is believed to have a more archaic skull, whose ratio of the length and width is relatively larger than other tiger subspecies. Its body is slim with a slender waist. It is distinguishable from other tiger subspecies by its narrower face, longer nose, more intense orange color, short fur, longer legs, and shorter & broader stripes which are spaced far apart compared with those of Bengal and Siberian tigers. Based on the researches of felidae zoologist V. Mazák, the South China tigers have the least number of stripes of all subspecies. The diamond-shaped patterns of the stripes can often be found on the sides of the South China Tiger and it is the next smallest tiger after the Sumatran tiger.


A male Chinese tiger measures from 230 to 265 cm (91 to 104 in) straight-line, and weigh 130 to 175 kg (290 to 390 lb). Females are smaller and measure 220 to 240 cm (87 to 94 in) and weigh 110 to 115 kg (240 to 250 lb). Greatest length of skull in males is 318 to 343 mm (12.5 to 13.5 in), and in females 273 to 301 mm (10.7 to 11.9 in).


In 1950's the South China tiger along with other predators such as leopards and wolves was declared to be pests and "enemies of the people", because they attacked the livestock of farmers and villagers. Becoming widely persecuted, the wild population of the South China Tiger fell from more than 4,000 to less than 200 by 1982. The Chinese government then reversed the classification of the tiger, banning hunting altogether in 1977, but this seems to have been too late. In 2000, Save China's Tiger charity was founded in London to work with China in an effort to bring the South China tiger back from the brink of extinction.




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#52 [url]

Feb 3 14 9:40 PM

Tigers on the Rebound

Study shows success of protecting the Himalayas' tigers

Spring 2014


WWF launched the Year of the Tiger campaign in 2010 and rallied global commitments to double the number of wild tigers by 2022. In early 2013, 120 tiger researchers fanned out across some of the wildest sections of India and Nepal to assess the status of that work. That team completed the first joint tiger and prey-base survey of the entire Terai Arc, a 600-mile-long transboundary landscape that boasts one of the highest densities of tigers in the world.


Using camera traps and lots of legwork, the surveyors identified individual tigers by their unique stripe patterns and found something amazing: Tiger numbers in Nepal have risen by an estimated 63% in four years.


That number is the result of three main factors: political momentum in the region, garnered by the Global Tiger Recovery Program launched at the tiger summit in 2010; the dedicated work of rangers, forest guards and army personnel protecting tigers and their prey; and the tigers’ robust birth rate in the productive grasslands and forests of the Terai.


By translating the study’s results into even more effective science-based efforts on behalf of these big cats, we are giving the Terai’s signature predators a fighting chance.






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#53 [url]

Feb 3 14 9:59 PM

Some years ago, Dr Packer mentioned that lions are in great danger of extinction, and if the thing continues like now, only THREE areas will have lions in the future: a.Masai Mara-Serengeti area, b.Kruger NP and c.the Okavango. Over the three areas there would be about 8,000 lions, probably slightly more.


Following the same reasoning, and taking in count the government compromise, land available and possible protection, I believe that in the future (over 20 years), only three areas will have wild tigers:


1. Terai Arc (Nepal, India and Bhutan).

2. Western Ghats landscape (India).

3. Russian Far East (Russia).


Over the three areas, there would be about 1,000 tigers at the most.


Indochina reserves are in great danger and have very small populations. Sumatran tigers have a population of about 500 but the populations are highly fragmented. Finally, all the Indian reserves that are not interconnected have very small populations that seem to be not viable for long term.


I hope that governments will found the way to protect the tigers, just like Nepal and Russia. Malaysia is doing a good job and Sumatra is one of the best areas were tiger can recover very well.


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#55 [url]

Feb 4 14 11:10 PM

Why you think that this facility is controversial? Based in the few pictures that are in them page, they are not doing anything out of the normal in comparison with all the other breeding facilities in the world.


Could you provide more information about this place?


By the way, this picture is great:



This is how it will look the tallest lion and tiger in the wild (c.114 cm). After all, lions and tigers are about the same shoulder height on average (lion less than 5 cm > tiger), but are of the same height at maximum figures.


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#58 [url]

Feb 5 14 1:08 AM

Amnon242 wrote:
Picture: that's tigress. They try to breed a liger. Something that I cannot agree with.

That's a pretty tall tigress, it is equivalent to a 6'1" human female.

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#59 [url]

Feb 5 14 1:25 AM

Amnon242 wrote:
Picture: that's tigress. They try to breed a liger. Something that I cannot agree with.

That is a tigress??? WOW!!! I think that it was a large male. How tall in the woman? Surely not much.


Mmmm, if they are breeding ligers, then I am NOT agree with them and they methods.


Ligers, like American white tigers are unnatural and should NOT be breaded.


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#60 [url]

Feb 5 14 1:42 AM

I don't know how tall is the woman. I have never been there. Btw 6'1women are not that wife is around 185 cm... :-)

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