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Oct 24 13 11:31 AM

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Post documents, pictures, history, and data of the Leopards of Asia and Africa.

These are taken directly from Premier topic from there respective posters (Peter, Kingtheropod, Guate, Chui, etc)




   Bodymass of African leopards:

Richard Meinertzhagen in the East africa and India: Average africa, 62 kg (n=5)

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Sanchez-Arino 12 male leopards Tanzania average 62 kg (n=12).

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Six female leopards east africa from Bertram in the Serengeti NP. averaged 32 kg.

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Measurements and body weights of south african leopards by ages. Males greater then 7 years weighed the most at 72.25 kg
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Last Edited By: Kingtheropod Oct 25 13 1:22 AM. Edited 2 times

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Oct 25 13 1:18 AM

About leopards

Leopards are found in Asia (including north-eastern China, south-eastern parts of Primorye, Shri Lanka and Arabia) and most parts of Africa. Although not as threatened as other big cats, leopards compete with humans for space. More dangerous than jaguars (there are many accounts of man-eaters and the Panar man-eater probably still holds the all-time record), the competition is not without consequences for both.

Leopards, like tigers, have many regional types. Small in remote parts of Israel and Arabia, Iran and tropical forests in central and western parts of Africa produce large animals. The skulls I measured confirmed. Based on what I saw (skulls included), sexual dimorphism in leopards seems to be more outspoken than in other big cats.   

This thread is dedicated to leopards. Anyone with good information is invited to post it on this thread.


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Skulls Belgian Congo


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2 - INDIA

The liner notes say 'cheetah', but this is a trained male leopard used for hunting.


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3 - JAVA

Tretes, Java, 1912:


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ATHLETICISM

As leopards are the most athletic of all big cats, trainers use this quality to get to a good act. This is from 1973 (W.Stiebner & Mowgli).



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Another one:


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Leopards, most unfortunately, have a reputation to defend in this department. In this post, three examples posted before.


1 - AFRICA

Could be a result of the number of accounts, but man-eating leopards seem to be quite rare in Africa. There was not doubt about this one shot by Carl Akeley, though. Akeley didn't get away unharmed:


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2 - NORTH-INDIA

Have a good look at this leopard, as he might top the list with 400 humans. Corbett described what happened on a dark and thundery night.


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3 - SEONEE (India)

This was the region that inspired Kipling. From all descriptions and photographs, it must have been a place of great beauty. But things are not always what they seem. Seonee had a more sinister side as well. This is a letter to the JBNHS about a man-eating leopard shot in 1901. Photograph remarkable:



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People tend to underestimate leopard because of its size. maybe because leopards are the smallest of the big cats. 
yes it is truth that they are usually only about 6 feet or so and weigh just under 200 pounds. but they know exactly how to use their power. 
armed with some serious claws and teeth they're more than capable of killing a human being. 
in my opinion this beautiful spotted cats are one of the fastest and the most agile among the big cat family.
Below are some sample images of how deadly this cat can be.
(Warning: Contains Graphic Images)

Siliguri, Darjeeling, India on July 19, 2011.
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Guwahati in northern state of Assam, January 9, 2012
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Dibrugarh, Assam state, India June 3, 2012  
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Africa
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i'm sure all of you have seen it on youtube

i feel that the more i learn about them the more  i  respect these enigmatic cats.

Here is a list of individual leopards recorded at 160lbs (73kg) or above that I know of which are probably reliable. This is from what I can recall, may have forgotten one or two and you can certainly expect this list to grow with more data coming in. Where possible I indicated which weights I felt were taken with a high stomach content based on the material available (description, photo, other measurements etc.) and also indicated which weights were specifically recorded with empty stomach.  

1) 96kg – Namibia – C.K. Brain 1983, The Hunter or the Hunted; An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy
2)93kg – Kenya – Tony France 1969 via James Mellon 1995, The African Hunter, the skull of this leopard is also recorded in Rowland Wards (18.38 inches)
3)91kg – Iran – Iranian Cheetah Society 2010 
4)86kg – Iran – (probably gorged) – B.H. Kiabi 2002, Population status of the Persian leopard in Iran
5)85kg – Zimbabwe – (empty stomach) – W. Grant 2007, Into the Thorns  
6)80kg – Iran – David Laylin via Tony Almeida 1990, Jaguar Hunting in the Mato Grasso
7)79kg – Tanzania – Sanchez-Arino via Tony Almeida 1990, Jaguar Hunting in the Mato Grasso
8)79kg – South Africa  – (probably gorged) – G.A. Balme 2012, Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards 
9)77kg  – location N/A – (empty stomach) – Peter Turnbull-Kemp 1967, The Leopard
10)77kg – Sri Lanka – W.A. Phillips via Pocock 1939, The fauna of British India
11)76kg – Botswana – (probably gorged) – Tuli Predator Project
12)75kg – South Africa – (probably empty stomach) – G.A. Balme 2012, Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards 
13)75kg – India – V.R. Athreya 2008, Morphometry of leopards from Maharashtra India
14)74.5kg – South Africa – C.R. Owen 2006, Reproductive Biology and Population Ecology of Leopards (Panthera Pardus) on Karongwe
15)74kg  – location N/A – (empty stomach) – Peter Turnbull-Kemp 1967, The Leopard  
16)73kg  –  Kenya – P.H. Hamilton 1982, The leopard and cheetah in Kenya
17)73kg – India – L.L. Fenton via Rowland Wards 1903

I’ve left out some weights whose reliability I wasn’t sure about especially second hand data for which it wasn’t really possible to evaluate the original source. For example, Peter TurnBull Kemp states in his book that he was aware of 7 records of 200lb+ leopards (1 empty stomach, 3 at least some food in stomach, 3 unknown stomach content) which he considered reliable but doesn’t provide any info on the original sources for these. He also mentions 2 other high weights for leopards he heard about from others, a 77kg leopard from Nigeria and an 85kg leopard from South Africa. Again, it’s hard to evaluate the reliability of these without knowing more about them and the original source. The length given for both these leopards was unrealistically high and thus casts some serious doubt on their reliability. However, the measurements of leopards TurnBull-Kemp himself measured are very reliable and perfectly believable, it’s too bad he didn’t provide detailed data as Almeida did for jaguars.      

The leopard is probably the cat which interests me most and I have looked quite extensively into their size and measurements. Compared to other big cats, the data available on the weights of leopards is fairly limited and what is available mostly comes from East or southern Africa . Very little data is available on weight from most other regions. Thus for leopards I instead prefer to look at skull measurements since they represent leopards from different regions much more adequately. Based on the skull data I’ve seen, my opinion is that the largest leopards are those from the Congo Basin region of equatorial Africa along with those from West Asia (Iran, Caucasus etc.). Skulls from these regions are consistently very large with the biggest approaching the dimensions of large jaguar skulls.  

Excerpts pertaining to the weight and measurements of leopards from Peter TurnBull-Kemp's book, "The Leopard" 1967. The heaviest leopard he weighed was 170lbs with stomach empty. However, there were at least 2 bigger leopards he recorded but didn't weigh. The very biggest was from Cameroon (Central Africa), TurnBull Kemp was of the opinion that African equatorial forest leopards are particularly large (skull data agrees).

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By GuateGojira:

Here is some of the most reliable data about the size of the leopard in different regions, check that in none of these sources is stated the ridiculous size of 190 cm in head-body length, recorded in some sources for the leopards:


Overall regions, from Sunquist & Sunquist (2002):

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Southern Africa, from Skinner & Chimimba (2005):

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India and Sri Lanka, from Pocock (1939):

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Russian Far East (weights only, at 2010), recorded by scientists:

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The heaviest leopard on all the wild records (96 kg):

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Finally, after reading this and many other documents about the size of the leopards, I made this list with the heaviest leopards in they own regions:

 

Records of the heaviest leopards (Panthera pardus) from scientific sources:

 

Africa:

·         96 kg. Valencia, Namibia (Brain, 1981; Taylor et al., 1999).

·         79 kg. Phinda-Mkhuze complex, South Africa (Balme et al., 2012).

·         79 kg. Loliondo region, Tanzania (De Almeida, 1993).

·         73 kg. Naivasha farm, Kenia (Hamilton, 1981).

·         71.3 kg. Zimbabwe (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         70 kg. Kruger National Park, South Africa [two specimens] (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         65 kg. East Africa [Hunted] (Schaller, 1972).

·         64.1 kg. Limpopo province, South Africa (Skinner & Chimimba, 2005).

·         60 kg. Zambia (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         56 kg. Tai NP, Ivory Coast (Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

·         45 kg. Cape Province, South Africa. (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         41 kg. Gabon. (Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

·         38 kg. Soutpansberg, South Africa (Grey, 2011).

 

Central Asia:

·         80 kg. Iran (De Almeida, 1993).

·         57 kg. Bafgh PA, Yazd Province, Iran (Hunter et al. 2007).

·         29.5 kg. Judean desert. (Simcharoen, 2008; Nowell & Jackson, 1996 [Aprox. to 30 kg.])).

 

East Asia:

·         83 kg. India (Athreya & Belsare, 2007).

·         77.1 kg. Sri Lanka. [Hunted] (Pocock, 1939; Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

·         75 kg. Maharashtra, India (Belsare & Athreya, 2010).

·         70 kg. Thailand (Rabinowitz, 1989; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         68.9 kg. India [Hunted] (Pocock, 1939; Nowell & Jackson, 1996 [Aprox. to 70 kg.])

·         61 kg. Primorski Krai, Russia (Miquelle & Goodrich, 2009).

·         58 kg. Royal Bardia NP, Nepal (Odden & Wegge, 2005).

·         43.5 kg. Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand (Simcharoen, 2008).

 

* Note: There are records of some male leopards in the mountains of Iran and central Asia that reached 90 kg (Nowell & Jackson, 1996), but there are no real confirmations of the figures. Stroganov suggested that the leopards in the Russian Far East could reach up to 75 kg (Heptner& Sludskii, 1992), but the heaviest male captured by scientist at this time was a leopard of 61 kg (Miquelle & Goodrich, 2009). Males of the highlands of Kenya are reported to weight 60-95 kg (Hamilton, 1981), but according with Sunquist & Sunquist (2002), “there are records of African male leopards weighing it at over 90 kilograms, but most of these animals had full stomach, which can add some 20 percent to the cat’s normal body weight”.

 

I will put more data on the size of the leopards, but for the moment, Enjoy the data!!! Yay

=================================================================================================

Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards 

Guy Andrew Balme, Luke Hunter, Alex Richard Braczkowski         

Abstract

"In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the hunting industry."

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0035209

Last Edited By: GuateGojira Dec 24 13 9:07 AM. Edited 1 time.

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#2 [url]

Oct 25 13 1:29 AM

Other info on leopards

Chui: Though you’ve managed to find the source for the 204lb leopard from Kenya I’ll post excerpts relating to it for interest’s sake. This leopard was shot by H. Walter a client of professional hunter, Tony France in the forests of Mount Kenya. It weighed 204lbs, measured 7’10” long and had a total skull score of 18.38 inches. Its photograph is shown in the book, “African Hunter” 1995 by James Mellon and its skull is listed in Rowland Wards.  It‘s also mentioned by a few other sources such as Jonathan Scott in his book “Big Cat Diary; Leopards”.

The photograph is good evidence of its large size, the hand on the neck provides some perspective.

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This leopard was also awarded the “Shaw and Hunter” award for best trophy of 1969.

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Here is the list of leopard skulls from the 1976 Rowland Wards African Edition. Skulls are ranked in terms of length (as opposed to total score in other record books) and the minimum skull length for entry was 10 inches (254mm). The skull of the 204lb Kenyan leopard (owner H. Walter) at the time ranked 14th in terms of length at 10.88 inches (276mm) but 5th in terms of total score (length + width) at 18.38 inches . The impressive skull measurements of this leopard are further evidence of very large size.

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Note that the Rowland Ward skull records are dominated by leopards from the Rift Valley regions of East Africa. In particular the highland forests of Kenya (Aberdares, Mt. Kenya) were considered to have huge leopards, bigger than the better known bushveld/savanna leopards.   Also, the few skulls listed in the hunting records from west/central Africa all rank high, consistent with scientific data. Below is a male leopard photographed in the Aberdares, notice the massive head and beautiful coat, not hard to see why these leopards were sought after trophies.

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As per the rest of the weights you enquired about:

The 85kg weight (empty stomach) from Zimbabwe is provided in the book, “Into the thorns; Hunting the Cattle Killing leopards of the Motobo Hills” by Wayne Grant as described here ( http://www.brooke-africa.com/BOOK%20REVIEWS/book-reviews-grant.html ). Wayne Grant appears to be a reliable and widely respected source, I’m hoping to read his book at some point which should provide some good data on the size of leopards. This book could possibly be the leopard equivalent of Almeida’s ”Jaguar Hunting in The Mato Grasso”.  Interestingly, his daughter, Tanith Grant is a scientist currently studying leopards in Zimbabwe.  

The 76kg leopard from Botswana was collared by the Tuli Predator Project. There was a pdf file on the web stating the weight of this leopard and showing its picture but I’m having trouble locating it. However, here’s a link to the project’s website ( http://tulipredatorproject.ning.com/profiles/blogs/leopard-capture ).  According to the lead researcher, Andrei Snyman, the average weight of male leopards captured was 70.3kg (probably a little inflated due to baiting).

The 74.5kg leopard from C.R. Owen’s paper, Reproductive Biology and Population Ecology of Leopards (Panthera Pardus) on Karongwe 2006. Note the 71kg male (corroborated by impressive chest and neck girth) was only 3 years old, he could easily have reached 80kg when fully mature by age 7.

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The weights of 77kg and 74kg are from Peter TurnBull Kemp’s book, I posted the excerpts in my previous post but I’ll post them again because they provide good info. The 77kg refers to the heaviest leopard Turnbull-Kemp weighed at 172lbs with 2lbs of food in the stomach. I suspect this is the 78kg specimen from South Africa(?) you listed in your last post? If so, Turnbull-Kemp did not specify where this leopard was from, he hunted all over Africa so it’s hard to say. However, this was not the biggest leopard he recorded, the most massive leopard he saw first hand was shot in Cameroon (central Africa) and measured 8’5” but was not weighed unfortunately. Interestingly, he also recorded a black leopard from Cameroon and his opinion was that the equatorial forest leopards of Africa are particularly large which I agree with. The second weight of 74kg refers to the 163lb leopard he weighed with an empty stomach which had the most massive skull he had handled, weighing about 2lbs! Again he did not specify where this leopard was from.

Peter TurnBull-Kemp, a game warden by profession is a very reliable source and provides some excellent first hand info on the measurements of leopards (see the excerpts below). It’s too bad he didn’t provide full details of all leopards he measured like Almeida. His book is widely cited in scientific literature and he is the original source for the statement you quoted from Sunsquist’s book about 90kg+ leopards.

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Regarding the 90kg leopard from Sabi Sands you posted, I would probably wait till we can see some more details before accepting it. However, there may be another reliable record of a 201lb (91kg) leopard from the region.  In his book, “A Country Boy in Africa” 1998, George Hoffman reports seeing a huge leopard in Kruger which he states was darted and weighed at 201lbs by Bruce Bryden, the chief game warden. It appears Bruce Bryden was well experienced in wildlife management and widely respected so he should be a reliable source. However, because I’ve only seen snippits of this book on Google Books and don’t really know anything about George Hoffman, I would look into it further before fully accepting it.

Snippets from Hoffman’s, “A Country Boy in Africa”. 

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Hoffman also mentions some leopards shot in Tanzania which supposedly weighed 201lbs and 206lb. Again can’t really say anything about how reliable these are.

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Me: Some body weights and measurements from the Niassa Carnivore project (2009)...

http://www.niassalion.org/library_files/2008%20NCP%20Annual%20report.pdf

leopard body measurements

Lionlife: 472-leopard1.jpg
Indian Leopard caught in Camera Trap from Rajasthan 

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Indian Leopard caught in camera trap from Karnataka - (Southern India)

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Same male again - different shot

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Indian leopard and rare black Female from Tamil Nadu

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second shot

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another Indian leopard from Central India 

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Indian leopard resting on a rock - from Karnataka

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Indian leopard caught feeding on a Gaur

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Indian leopard from Rajasthan

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Indian leopard from Assam, India

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Snow leopard caught in Camera trap from Jammu Kashmir - India


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Prathap: Leopard with a ‘designer’ coat


Not by default:A leopard with black spots that resemble a ‘mehandi’ design which was spotted at the Parambikkulam Tiger Reserve in Palakkad district recently.
Not by default:A leopard with black spots that resemble a ‘mehandi’ design which was spotted at the Parambikkulam Tiger Reserve in Palakkad district recently.


A leopard cannot change its spots, but can still sport a designer look. A leopard with black spots that resemble a ‘mehandi’ design was spotted at the Parambikkulam Tiger Reserve in Palakkad district recently. The leopard was photographed by the camera traps set up at the Reserve, said V. Gopinath, Chief Wildlife Warden of the Kerala Forest Department. Wildlife experts say that it could be a case of pseudo-melanism or even a quick change in camouflage to suit the habitat. P.O. Nameer, Head, Centre for Wildlife Studies, College of Forestry, Thrissur, was of the view that the photographed animal was a pseudo-melanistic one. In such cases, the black spots on the golden-brown skin of the animal would be densely packed. 

The black spots would merge to obscure the background colour of skin. The closely packed black spots in the photographed animal seemed to have formed into some interesting patterns, he said. Normal leopards would have golden-yellow coat with small, closely set black spots called rosettes. In leopards with increased presence of melanin in skin, the black colour would dominate, giving the impression that the animal has a black coat. Such leopards are called black panthers, he explained. 

Though Black Panthers were not uncommon in Kerala forests, a pseudo-melanistic leopard was quite rare and this could be the first confirmed sighting of the animal from the State, he said. E.A. Jayson, Head of the Wildlife Department of the Kerala Forest Research Institute, Thrissur, said the sighted animal could be a melanistic one or was even having a quick change in camouflage to suit its habitat. 

Melanism could be caused genetic mutation. White tigers and black leopards were examples for the phenomenon, he said. It had been reported that leopards exhibit a range of colour and pattern variations. Studies had indicated that leopards living in desert areas tend to be pale yellow in colour whereas those inhabiting grasslands had a deeper golden colour. Detailed studies were needed to reach a convincing conclusion, Dr. Jayson said.


Genetic mutation

Mr. Gopinath said the animal would be closely watched for finding out whether it was a case of genetic mutation. No genetic studies were planned on the animal right now. However, efforts would be taken to sight the animal again, he said. 

Mr. Nameer ruled out the possibility of a taxonomic distinctiveness in this case. There was no possibility of the animal belonging to a separate subspecies. For a subspecies to evolve, there should be geographical isolation of the species from the rest of the habitats for millions of years. There was no such isolation in Parambikkulam area that was part of a contiguous forest ecosystem. The leopards found in the Indian sub-continent belonged to the species Panthera pardus, he said. 

Dr. Jayson also felt that the possibility of the sighted leopard belonging to a subspecies was very remote. Studies were needed to check whether more such individuals existed in the locality. Genetic studies also needed to reach any conclusion as this was just one observation about a biological feature, he said.


Prathap:
Leopards vanishing faster than tigers in Madhya Pradesh

BHOPAL: While the leopard is one of the most widely recognized cats after tigers, its days may be numbered in Madhya Pradesh. Thanks to poaching, retaliatory killing, conflicts with farmers followed by weak investigationsthe spotted feline may soon qualify for 'vulnerable'status.

Within 24 hours of a leopard's death in Panna district, another one got killed in Seoni district on Tuesday morning. Even as a failed poaching attempt is being alleged in the Seoni case, officers concerned claim that the big cat was killed in a territorial war with tiger.

However, with these two casualties, MP has lost 15 leopards in the last seven months, including six that were trapped, axed and electrocuted to death for hides and nails. While one leopard was killed in retaliation by villagers, others lost their lives to territorial wars and road accidents.

In other cases, leopards were poached using crude bombs and deadly clutch wire traps, at Chhatarpur and Sagar districts. Poachers had chopped off the claws for their nails in two different cases reported from Alirajpur and Dhar. A hide was seized from south Balaghat area on February 13.

The frequent deaths have prompted wildlife activists to call for conservation programs for leopards in line with those conducted for tigers.

Wildlife activist Ajay Dubey has written a letter to the Union minister for forest and environment (Moef), Jayanti Natarajan, to constitute a special cell or wing at national level for their protection. An RTI filed by him has revealed that 138 leopards have died in MP since 2008.

Maximum casualties were reported in 2011 (43) of which 17 were killed by poachers in Seoni, Balaghat, Burhanpur, Barwani, Mandla, Sehore, Panna, Hoshangabad and Badwah forest areas.

Poor investigations by inexperienced and un-resourceful rangers has led to submission of week charge-sheets in most of the cases, said wildlife experts adding that the conviction level in poaching cases in MP is below 5%. The poaching figures could have been much more if all cases of leopard deaths are investigated properly. Allegedly, in most of the cases, officers shy away from registering a poaching case. "Instead, a common reason is put forth- "killed in territorial war" to avert action from their higher-ups," said Dubey.

Indore based wildlife photographer Amit Kanungo, claimed that leopards were easily spotted in forest areas around Indore division till 2009."I have not seen even a single one in the last four years," said Kanungo adding these cats will vanish much before tigers in MP.

None of the wildlife officials wished to comment at length on the status of leopards in MP. A few of those who spoke, wished anonymity and said that tigers will remain on priority list. Newly posted chief wildlife warden (CWW) Narendra Kumar said that he will look at better conservation efforts


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#3 [url]

Dec 24 13 9:13 AM

Records of the heaviest leopards – Final result

The copy-paste of some previous posts are not in order, so in the search of an accurate result, here is my final list about the heaviest leopards, the final note mentions that some samples are very small and the conclusions are only suggestive in those cases. Here are the results:

 

Records of the heaviest leopards (Panthera pardus) from scientific sources and reliable hunting literature:

 

Africa:

·         Namibia: 96 kg. Valencia, Namibia [heaviest ever recorded in the wild] (Brain, 1981; Taylor et al., 1999).

·         East Africa:

o   92.5 kg. Mount Kenya, Kenya [Hunted] (Mellon 1995; Scott & Scott, 2006 [Spanish edition]).

o   79 kg. Loliondo region, Tanzania (De Almeida, 1990).

o   73 kg. Naivasha farm, Kenia (Hamilton, 1981).

o   65.3 kg. East Africa [Hunted] (Meinertzhagen, 1938; Schaller, 1972).

·         South Africa:

o   90 kg. Kruger NP [Hunted] (Fourie, 1992).

o   79 kg. Phinda-Mkhuze complex (Balme et al., 2012).

o   78 kg. South Africa [Hunted, empty belly] (Turnbull-Kemp, 1967).

o   70 kg. Kruger NP [two specimens, empty belly] (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

o   64.1 kg. Limpopo province (Skinner & Chimimba, 2005).

o   45 kg. Cape Province (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

o   38 kg. West Soutpansberg (Grey, 2011).

·         Zimbabwe: 71.3 kg. Matetsi, Zimbabwe (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         Zambia: 60 kg. Eastern Zambia (Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

·         Ivory Coast: 56 kg. Tai NP, Ivory Coast (Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

·         Gabon: 41 kg. Northeastern Gabon. (Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

 

Central Asia:

·         Iran:

o   91 kg. Iran (Iranian Cheetah Society, 2010).

o   86 kg. Golestan NP (Kiabi et al., 2002).

o   57 kg. Bafgh PA, Yazd Province (Hunter et al. 2007).

·         Israel: 29.5 kg. Judean desert. (Simcharoen, 2008; Nowell & Jackson, 1996 [Aprox. to 30 kg.])).

 

East Asia:

·         India:

o   83 kg. India [Includes some stomach content] (Athreya & Belsare, 2007; Belsare Pers. Comm., 2013).

o   75 kg. Maharashtra (Belsare & Athreya, 2010).

o   72.6 kg. Gir Forest [Hunted] (Ward, 1914).

o   72.6 kg. Gorakpur division [Hunted, baited] (Burke & Burke, 1935).

o   69 kg. Central India [Hunted] (Pocock, 1939; Nowell & Jackson, 1996 [Aprox. to 70 kg.])

o   68 kg. Cooch Behar [Hunted] (Cooch Behar, 1908).

o   64.4 kg. Mysore [Hunted] (Meinertzhagen, 1938).

·         Sri Lanka: 77.1 kg. [Hunted] (Pocock, 1939; Nowell & Jackson, 1996).

·         Thailand:

o   70 kg. Huai Kha Khaeng WS (Rabinowitz, 1989; Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002).

o   43.5 kg. Huai Kha Khaeng WS (Simcharoen, 2008).

o   40 kg. Kaeng Krachan NP (Grassman, 1999).

·         Russian Far East: 61 kg. Primorski Krai, Russia (Miquelle & Goodrich, 2009).

·         Nepal: 58 kg. Royal Bardia NP, Nepal (Odden & Wegge, 2005).

·         Java: 45 kg. Bogor, Java (Hoogerwerf, 1970).

 

* Note: Some of the records belong to small samples and offers only suggestive results. Stroganov suggested that the leopards in the Russian Far East could reach up to 75 kg (Heptner & Sludskii, 1992), but the heaviest male captured by scientist at this time was a leopard of 61 kg (Miquelle & Goodrich, 2009). Males of the highlands of Kenya are reported to weight 60-95 kg (Hamilton, 1981), but according with Sunquist & Sunquist (2002), “there are records of African male leopards weighing it at over 90 kilograms, but most of these animals had full stomach, which can add some 20 percent to the cat’s normal body weight”.

 

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